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689 European Gentleman 歐洲紳士

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) c.1710
Height: 26 cm

中國清代康熙(公元1662-1722年),約1710年
高:26厘米

Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom

來源:
英國私人收藏

A rare Chinese soapstone figure of a European gentleman, robed in the fashion of the early 18th century. He is dressed in a long sumptuous coat, with wide sleeves and broad cuffs. His left hand is held in front of the chest, palm up. The right hand is at the waist, the wide cuff covering it entirely. The collarless full-skirted justaucorps coat is open, revealing the long waistcoat. A sash runs diagonally from his left shoulder over the chest. A cravat is tied loosely around his neck, the long ends hanging down. The incised pattern on the clothes has traces of gold and some of the red and green polychrome decoration is also still visible.

The long curling hair, presumably a wig, is gathered to one side, the end loosely tied and placed in a pouch. Such wig bags were common in the 18th century, particularly when wearing formal attire. At this time the use of pomander and powder, on own hair and wigs, was widespread. Stray hair powder, could be brushed off every day clothing. However, formal coats made of luxurious fabrics such silk or brocade, were expensive and could not be washed. These garments could be protected from falling powder and greasy pomander by wearing the hair wrapped in bags.

Chinese soapstone carvings, with a European subject matter, are a rarity and likely ordered for the export market. This figure was possibly carved after a contemporary European print, which would have been sent to China to copy. Despite the Western features, the hand of the Chinese craftsman is revealed by the rendering of the eyes and hair. Also the decorative pattern on the clothing, resembles the similar incised decor on Chinese figures. A soapstone figure of a European was in the former Ionides collection and depicted in several publications. There is also a comparable figures made in ivory. A female figure of similar size and style was in the Vanderven Collection in 1996.

This figure may well have represent a Venetian noble, as his clothes look similar to studies made by Luca Carlevarijs around 1700-1710 now in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

這尊罕見的中國岫玉雕像刻畫了一位十八世紀初的歐洲紳士。他穿著華麗寬袖長袍,左手掌心朝上置於胸前,被肥大袖口蓋住的右手插在腰間。無領的及膝外套敞開,露出長掛,一條肩帶從左肩縱貫於胸前,領巾鬆鬆地纏在脖子上並垂下長長的一端。雕像衣服上的暗刻圖案含有鍍金痕跡,另外也有一些紅色和綠色的填色。

人物長長的卷髮應是假髮,頭髮在一邊束起來並放入絲袋中。這種假髮袋在十八世紀應用普遍,尤其是在穿著正式服裝時。這一時期,人們也經常在自己的頭髮和假髮上使用香粉。掉落的粉末,可以在普通衣物上刷掉,但對於由絲綢或錦緞等豪華面料製成的不能洗滌的正式外套而言,只能用髮袋來防止香粉污染衣物。

歐洲題材的中國岫玉雕刻十分罕見,極可能為出口而製作。這尊雕像可能是依照送至中國的同時代歐洲版畫而雕刻。儘管人物總體上顯示西方特徵,但中國工匠之手在處理人物的眼睛和頭髮時暴露出來。此外,服裝上的裝飾圖案也類似於中國人物身上的切割裝飾。在伊俄尼得斯的收藏品中,曾見歐洲人物的岫玉雕像,並收錄在數個圖冊中,其中也有類似的牙雕像。 梵德溫東方藝術行曾於1996年收藏有一尊差不多尺寸的歐洲女子玉雕。

從服飾上判斷,這尊玉雕可能刻畫的是一位義大利威尼斯貴族。英國倫敦的維多利亞和艾伯特博物館藏有卡列瓦伊斯作於1700-1710年左右的畫稿,其中的男子服飾可供參考。

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